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From my experience, these two words mean the same thing in most Australian jobs.
Wikipedia has a good summary account of the role of the résumé which includes:
A résumé (pronounced /ˈrɛzjʊmeɪ/ rez-ew-may or /rɛzjʊˈmeɪ/; French: [ʁezyme]; sometimes spelled resume) is a document used by individuals to present their background and skillsets. Résumés can be used
for a variety of reasons but most often to secure new employment. A typical résumé contains a summary of relevant job experience and education. The résumé is usually one of the first items, along with a cover letter and sometimes job application packet, that a potential employer encounters regarding the job seeker and is typically used to screen applicants, often followed by an interview, when seeking employment. The résumé is comparable to a curriculum vitae (CV) in many countries, although in English Canada and the United States résumé is substantially shorter than CV.
To decide how long your résumé should be, make sure you follow any instructions given. It is becoming more common in government job vacancies for the size of the application to have a word or page limit. For example the DEEDI ‘Guide for Applicants – Making a difference’, the following guidance is given:
You are required as part of your application to provide the selection panel with a resume. Your resume is to provide the selection panel with a summary of your education, work history, and any other training and
skills you have gained through school, study, work experience and hobbies. Your resume should include where you have worked to date, jobs held during your period of employment and major duties performed. Your resume may also contain the details of two referees who can provide an objective assessment of your work performance. Your resume may be considered as a part of an application or may be considered on its own, so it may be vital to include as much information as possible to allow the panel to assess your suitability for the role. A resume should generally be no more than four pages.
If no limit is given – ask the contact officer or recruitment area what is expected. Generally, if your résumé exceeds four pages, it is too long.
This popular slideshare presentation (80,000 views in 9 months) shows how one individual used a common social media tool to get his resume out and to find work – beats the cold call letter.